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After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle, preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower.
As a result, Hannibal fought no more major battles in Italy for the rest of the war. Whatever the reason, the choice prompted Maharbal to say, "Hannibal, you know how to gain a victory, but not how to use one.
Hannibal also secured an alliance with newly appointed tyrant Hieronymus of Syracuse. It is often argued that, if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage, he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome.
However, only a few of the Italian city-states defected to him that he had expected to gain as allies. The war in Italy settled into a strategic stalemate.
The Romans used the attritional strategy that Fabius had taught them, and which, they finally realized, was the only feasible means of defeating Hannibal.
His immediate objectives were reduced to minor operations centered mainly round the cities of Campania. The forces detached to his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make up his losses.
His position in southern Italy, therefore, became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote.
Hannibal still won a number of notable victories: He was never able to bring about another grand decisive victory that could produce a lasting strategic change.
Carthaginian political will was embodied in the ruling oligarchy. There was a Carthaginian Senate, but the real power was with the inner " Council of 30 Nobles " and the board of judges from ruling families known as the " Hundred and Four ".
These two bodies came from the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. Two political factions operated in Carthage: Hannibal started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy.
His attack of Saguntum had presented the oligarchy with a choice of war with Rome or loss of prestige in Iberia.
The oligarchy, not Hannibal, controlled the strategic resources of Carthage. Hannibal constantly sought reinforcements from either Iberia or North Africa.
The commercial interests of the Carthaginian oligarchy dictated the reinforcement and supply of Iberia rather than Hannibal throughout the campaign.
The tide was slowly turning against him, and in favor of Rome. The Roman consuls mounted a siege of Capua in BC. Hannibal attacked them, forcing their withdrawal from Campania.
He moved to Lucania and destroyed a 16,man Roman army at the Battle of the Silarus , with 15, Romans killed. Another opportunity presented itself soon after, a Roman army of 18, men being destroyed by Hannibal at the first battle of Herdonia with 16, Roman dead, freeing Apulia from the Romans for the year.
Hannibal attempted to lift the siege with an assault on the Roman siege lines but failed. He marched on Rome to force the recall of the Roman armies.
He drew off 15, Roman soldiers, but the siege continued and Capua fell. After leaving a record of his expedition engraved in Punic and Greek upon bronze tablets in the temple of Juno Lacinia at Crotona , he sailed back to Africa.
Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols that ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet.
Scipio and Carthage had worked out a peace plan, which was approved by Rome. The terms of the treaty were quite modest, but the war had been long for the Romans.
Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire. Masinissa Numidia was to be independent.
Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. But Carthage then made a terrible blunder.
Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripped it of supplies, an action that aggravated the faltering negotiations.
Meanwhile, Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian Senate, had returned with his army. Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests.
Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War , at Zama, the Romans were superior in cavalry and the Carthaginians had the edge in infantry. Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants.
The Roman cavalry won an early victory by swiftly routing the Carthaginian horse, and standard Roman tactics for limiting the effectiveness of the Carthaginian war elephants were successful, including playing trumpets to frighten the elephants into running into the Carthaginian lines.
Some historians say that the elephants routed the Carthaginian cavalry and not the Romans, whilst others suggest that it was actually a tactical retreat planned by Hannibal.
This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to collapse. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to surrender.
Carthage lost approximately 20, troops with an additional 15, wounded. In contrast, the Romans suffered only 2, casualties.
The last major battle of the Second Punic War resulted in a loss of respect for Hannibal by his fellow Carthaginians.
The conditions of defeat were such that Carthage could no longer battle for Mediterranean supremacy. Hannibal was still only 46 at the conclusion of the Second Punic War in BC and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier.
Following the conclusion of a peace that left Carthage saddled with an indemnity of ten thousand talents , he was elected suffete , chief magistrate of the Carthiginian state.
The principal beneficiaries of these financial peculations had been the oligarchs of the Hundred and Four. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year, with none permitted to "hold office for two consecutive years.
He journeyed first to Tyre , the mother city of Carthage, and then to Antioch , before he finally reached Ephesus , where he was honorably received by Antiochus.
Livy states that the Seleucid king consulted Hannibal on the strategic concerns of making war on Rome. The Carthaginian general advised equipping a fleet and landing a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself.
When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. He replied, "I have seen during my life many old fools; but this one beats them all.
The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata.
At this stage, the Romans intervened and threatened Bithynia into giving up Hannibal. Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society.
He became such a figure of terror that whenever disaster struck, the Roman senators would exclaim " Hannibal ante portas " "Hannibal is at the gates!
This famous Latin phrase became a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity.
The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary. Nevertheless, the Romans grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace; they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.
During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions within the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups.
It says volumes, too, for their political maturity and respect for constitutional forms that the complicated machinery of government continued to function even amidst disaster—there are few states in the ancient world in which a general who had lost a battle like Cannae would have dared to remain, let alone would have continued to be treated respectfully as head of state.
The wailing cry of the matrons was heard everywhere, not only in private houses but even in the temples. Here they knelt and swept the temple-floors with their dishevelled hair and lifted up their hands to heaven in piteous entreaty to the gods that they would deliver the City of Rome out of the hands of the enemy and preserve its mothers and children from injury and outrage.
In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under the direction of Claudius Marcellus , and later in Hispania under Scipio Africanus.
Most of the sources available to historians about Hannibal are from Romans. They considered him the greatest enemy Rome had ever faced.
Livy gives us the idea that Hannibal was extremely cruel. Even Cicero , when he talked of Rome and its two great enemies, spoke of the "honourable" Pyrrhus and the "cruel" Hannibal.
Yet a different picture sometimes emerges. Any bias attributed to Polybius , however, is more troublesome. Hannibal is generally regarded as one of the best military strategists and tacticians of all time, the double envelopment at Cannae an enduring legacy of tactical brilliance.
According to Appian , several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal served as a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio was sent there on a diplomatic mission from Rome.
It is said that at one of their meetings in the gymnasium Scipio and Hannibal had a conversation on the subject of generalship, in the presence of a number of bystanders, and that Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest general, to which the latter replied, " Alexander of Macedonia ".
To this Scipio assented since he also yielded the first place to Alexander. Then he asked Hannibal whom he placed next, and he replied, " Pyrrhus of Epirus ", because he considered boldness the first qualification of a general; "for it would not be possible", he said, "to find two kings more enterprising than these".
Scipio was rather nettled by this, but nevertheless he asked Hannibal to whom he would give the third place, expecting that at least the third would be assigned to him; but Hannibal replied, "to myself; for when I was a young man I conquered Hispania and crossed the Alps with an army, the first after Hercules.
As Scipio saw that he was likely to prolong his self-laudation he said, laughing, "where would you place yourself, Hannibal, if you had not been defeated by me?
Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in an indirect manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander.
At the end of this conversation Hannibal invited Scipio to be his guest, and Scipio replied that he would be so gladly if Hannibal were not living with Antiochus , who was held in suspicion by the Romans.
Thus did they, in a manner worthy of great commanders, cast aside their enmity at the end of their wars. As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions.
The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity.
In the use of strategies and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other generals of antiquity. Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage.
As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot. We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls.
Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources. The Romans feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice.
Livy speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally great, among which he singles out his more than Punic perfidy and an inhuman cruelty.
For the first there would seem to be no further justification than that he was consummately skillful in the use of ambuscades.
For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare.
Sometimes he contrasts most favorably with his enemy. No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal Barca.
Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians.
He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny. For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.
Patton believed himself a reincarnation of Hannibal as well as of many other people, including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier.
But those same principles of war that applied to the days of Hannibal apply today. According to the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge ,.
Hannibal excelled as a tactician. No battle in history is a finer sample of tactics than Cannae. But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy.
No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he.
No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds. Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation.
Excepting in the case of Alexander, and some few isolated instances, all wars up to the Second Punic War, had been decided largely, if not entirely, by battle-tactics.
Strategic ability had been comprehended only on a minor scale. Armies had marched towards each other, had fought in parallel order, and the conqueror had imposed terms on his opponent.
Any variation from this rule consisted in ambuscades or other stratagems. That it did so was due to the teaching of Hannibal.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hannibal disambiguation. For the fictional horror character, see Hannibal Lecter. A marble bust, reputedly of Hannibal, originally found at the ancient city-state of Capua in Italy.
Battle of the Trebia. Battle of Lake Trasimene. Cultural depictions of Hannibal. Sacred institutions with Roman counterparts. Personal Names in the Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions.
Retrieved 6 June Teaching Company, "Great Courses" series. Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Punic Wars. Environmental Background to the Alpine Invasion of Italia.
Lancel, Hannibal ; English translation page Justin, Cornelius Nepos, and Eutropius: I dont like posting youtube montages, but Jordi Alba deserves more recognition.
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After yesterday come-back, I want to remind you guys one of the best matches ever with a come back from in the same match.
Against Atletico in Just imagine Pantic scoring 4 goals and losing the game: Lionel Messi scored today, giving him an eight-game scoring streak in all competitions, his longest such streak since and tied for the third-longest streak of his Barcelona career.
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