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The predators make those sleeping sites, which are mainly tree holes about The preferred sleeping sites of most golden lion tamarins are tree holes in living trees next to other larger trees with a small percentage of canopy cover.
These sleeping sites not only provide a place for sleep, but also offer protection and easy access to foraging sites. Most of the tree holes are lower to the ground, so they are easier to enter.
Tree holes that are located in living trees are drier, warmer, and have a lower number of insects and therefore a decreased percentage of transmitted diseases.
A smaller percentage of canopy coverage allows the golden lion tamarins to detect the predators faster, and being surrounded by other large trees allows them access to escape routes.
Golden lion tamarins are known to use different den sites, but do not change sites often. They are more likely to reuse secure sites that will offer protection.
However, the disadvantage of doing so is that predators are able to learn where these sites are located. Golden lion tamarins also scent mark their den holes, so they can quickly return to them in the afternoon time when predators are most active.
While excessive scent makes it easier for golden lion tamarins to find their sleeping sites, it also helps predators locate their prey.
Moreover, increased deforestation has decreased habitat space, providing predators easy access to their prey, causing a decline in the golden lion tamarin population.
Threats to the golden lion tamarin population include illegal logging , poaching , mining , urbanization and infrastructure development and the introduction of alien species.
In , the number of individuals in the Atlantic Forest was found to have dropped to a low of individuals. The intent is to strengthen the wild population and maintain a secure captive population in zoos worldwide.
The survival rate of re-introduced animals has been encouraging, but destruction of unprotected habitat continues. Because of the extensive habitat loss of the golden lion tamarin, the wild population reached endangered status in the early s.
Beginning in , there has been a huge effort on behalf of scientists and conservationists to reintroduce captive-born golden lion tamarins back into the wild.
The goals of the reintroduction process include increasing the size as well as the genetic diversity of the wild population, increasing the available range to better encompass the historic range of the tamarins in Brazil, and widening the scope of public awareness and education programs.
The first step of reintroduction begins with zoo free ranging programs, where tamarins have access to explore the entire zoo. However, they are kept on zoo grounds by the presence of a nest box, an ice box like container where their food is kept.
For the first 6—18 months the reintroduced groups are monitored. Additionally, tamarins from each group are radio collared to allow careful monitoring, and all reintroduced tamarins are tattooed and dye marked for easy identification.
Many were exposed to callitrichid hepatitis , and contracted the disease. The number of wild golden lion tamarins is now up in the thousands in all reserves and ranches combined in Brazil.
These numbers were once down in the s in By , the number of golden lion tamarins that are protected is projected to be greater than Golden lion tamarins are native to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.
Their original habitat was located from the southern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro to the southern part of the state of Espirito Santo. However, deforestation of Atlantic Forest for commercial purposes, predation, and capture of the golden lion tamarins for animal trade and sale as pets has limited their population to about five municipalities across Rio de Janeiro.
However, due to the deforestation and fragmentation of the Atlantic forest, their home ranges have decreased in size.
The habitat of the tamarins also affects their behavior and social interactions. For example, the type of trees present has a significant effect on the behavior of juvenile golden lion tamarins.
Their juvenile behavior is characterized by social play between individuals of different ages and species. This is a key aspect of their social, cognitive and motor skill development, and it influences their behavior when facing competition and predators; how they play mirrors the way they act when facing predatory or competitive interactions.
As a result, play decreases and therefore the development of learned survivorship behaviors does as well. Also, if play is observed in the dangerous areas, the individuals are more exposed to predators, leading to a population decline; which resembles the effect of predation on their sleeping sites.
The exposure to predation not only affects the juvenile tamarins but the adults as well, since it has been observed that play happens in the center of the group for protection of the young.
Additionally, this deforestation and fragmentation also leads to demographic instabilities, and an increased probability of inbreeding , consequently leading to inbreeding depression and a population decline.
Inbreeding leads to low levels of genetic diversity and has a negative effect on survivorship; inbred offspring have a lower survivorship than non-inbred offspring.
Fragmentation leads to a decline in dispersal and as a result, a decline in breeding with individuals of other groups.
Consequently, inbreeding depression is observed in these populations. However, dispersal is risky and requires a lot of energy that could have been used for reproduction instead.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press.
Retrieved 12 January Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 10 April International Journal of Primatology.
Volume 2, New world monkeys. Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. Am J Primatol 59 1: The Atlantic Forest of South America: Am J Primatol 41 4: Archived from the original on 22 October Archived from the original on 13 March Anim Behav 46 6: D dissertation, University of Maryland.
Am J Primatol 38 1: Boinski S, Garber PA, editors. Ecology and behavior of neotropical primates, Volume 2. Int J Primatol 24 6: Tree and forest characteristics influence sleeping site choice by golden lion tamarins.
American Journal of Primatology Predator Influence on golden lion tamarin nest choice and presleep behavior. Retrieved 26 May Archived from the original on 16 April Losses and reproduction in reintroduced golden lion tamarins.
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